After the re-imposition of US sanctions in 2018 sparked a crash in its oil industry, Iran accelerated production of natural gas and gas condensates and expanded gas exports to neighbouring countries less vulnerable to sanctions. However, domestic obstacles and continued limits on its energy exports have prevented Iran from securing its place as a major gas provider to the region, and it now has another priority for its rising gas output: its downstream sector.
From a situation of no diplomatic connections and almost non-existent economic relations only a quarter of a century ago, Chinese–Israeli trade, investment and political ties are on an upward spiral. Although global tensions, most notably the US’s objection to the supply of certain technologies to China and, more recently, the trade war between those two countries are slowing the expansion of relations, there are sound foundations for growing geoeconomic and geopolitical cooperation, based on correlating interests that serve both countries.
Vietnam will continue to emerge as a global manufacturing hub in the coming years, particularly in the electronics sector. Despite rising trade tensions with the US, structural factors including low wage costs, a large infrastructure pipeline and recently signed free-trade agreements should sustain investment in the manufacturing sector. Long-term challenges include managing growing demands for political representation and rising concerns over the environmental sustainability of the country’s growth model.