After the re-imposition of US sanctions in 2018 sparked a crash in its oil industry, Iran accelerated production of natural gas and gas condensates and expanded gas exports to neighbouring countries less vulnerable to sanctions. However, domestic obstacles and continued limits on its energy exports have prevented Iran from securing its place as a major gas provider to the region, and it now has another priority for its rising gas output: its downstream sector.
Swathes of under-invested land, a strong tradition of agricultural production, and access to EU markets and funds are draws for investors in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Recent years have seen landmark investments in the region’s agricultural sector, including from food-insecure Gulf countries. But businesses still grapple with fragmented land holdings and patchy infrastructure. This analysis focuses on two neighbouring countries in South-East Europe, Serbia and Romania, which have attracted big-ticket investments from around the globe and face similar challenges.